Infertility is generally defined as one year of unprotected intercourse without conception. Sub fertility to describe women or couples who are not sterile but exhibit decreased reproductive efficiency.

According to the WHO report about 2-10% of couples worldwide are unable to conceive primarily and about 60-80% couples in the world are infertile. It is estimated that 10% of normally fertile couples fail to conceive within their first year of attempt. Further 10-25% couples experience secondary infertility. Among these couples, causative factors are found about 30-40% in females and 10-30% in males. Genetic factors, changed lifestyle, increased stress and environmental pollution are identified as factors contributing to the rise of infertility.

Management of infertility involves specific identifiable cause and its correction along with counseling to both the partners.